The 4 Cs of Food Safety

Inspector testing pies

Four simple rules that will help you to stay safe from food-borne illnesses in the kitchen:


  • Clean kitchen surfaces after preparing foods; try to 'clean as you go'.
  • After handling raw meat, poultry, fish and other raw foods always wash hands, utensils and surfaces thoroughly and before any contact with other food, especially cooked and ready-to-eat foods.

Use the right materials for the job

  • Detergents such as washing up liquids are designed to dissolve grease, oil and dirt.
  • Disinfectants, such as bleach, are designed to kill germs. These are powerful agents and should not be used indiscriminately. Anti-bacterial cleaners are types of disinfectant and can kill germs - they often come in spray form.
  • Disinfectants and anti-bacterial cleaners won't work if you don't use them properly, so always follow the instructions.

Do things right:

  • Use separate buckets and cloths for cleaning floors.
  • Give your kitchen a thorough 'spring clean' periodically.
  • Always clean surfaces first with detergent to remove any grease or dirt, then apply disinfectant to kill any remaining germs.
  • Use separate cloths or sponges for separate tasks; where practicable use disposable cloths. If using them more than once, wash in hot water and soap then place in a suitable disinfectant, rinse thoroughly and allow to dry. Do not soak overnight as disinfectant solutions weaken and may allow bacteria to grow.

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  • Follow recipes and label instructions on cooking times and temperatures. Remember to pre-heat the oven properly.
  • Check food is piping hot before serving. Double check that sausages, burgers, pork and poultry are cooked right through; they should not be 'rare' or pink in the middle and when pierced with a knife any juices that run out of the meat should be clear, not bloody. Don't cook foods too far in advance. Once cooked, keep foods covered and piping hot (above 63°C) until it's time to eat them. When using the microwave stir foods and drinks and allow them to stand for a couple of minutes to avoid hot or cold spots.

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Cross contamination

  • Food poisoning is often caused when harmful bacteria on one food are spread via hands or kitchen utensils to cross-contaminate other foods. Good hygiene helps prevent this.
  • Keep raw foods separate from cooked and ready-to-eat food at all times. In particular keep raw meat, fish, poultry and other raw foods away from ready-to-eat foods such as salads, bread and sandwiches. Never put cooked food on a plate which has previously held raw foods until it has been thoroughly washed.
  • Ideally use separate chopping boards for raw and cooked foods.
  • Wash hands after handling raw foods and before touching other foods and utensils.

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  • Do not put hot food directly into the fridge or freezer, let it cool sufficiently first; but remember that cooling should be completed within one or two hours after cooking.
  • To speed cooling divide foods into smaller portions, place in a wide dish and stand this in a shallow tray of cold water.

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If you have any queries please contact us online.

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Page last updated:

November 29, 2022

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